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BMI Kalkulator

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Kalkulator kalorija

Starost(god)
Visina(cm)
Težina(kg)
Pol
Aktivnost

Kalkulator trudnoce

Unesite datum poslednjeg ciklusa:
Posteljica – Placenta
Ocena korisnika: / 11
LošeNajbolje 
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Posteljica – Placenta
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Posteljica je prolazan organ, traje tokom trudnoće i završava svoj vek nakon porođaja.
Sastavljena je iz tkiva porekla embriona ( chorion frondosum ) i tkiva porekla majke ( decidua basalis ).
Razvoj posteljice kreće tokom implantacije.
Posteljica omogućuje razmenu materija između majke i ploda.
Morfologija :

Tokom prvih nedelja rasta i razvoja ploda horionske čupice ( villi choreales ) se razvijaju i menjaju.
Horionske čupice na horionskoj ploči i prema bazalnoj decidui progresivno se razvijaju i stvara se čupasti horion (chorion frondosum ), iz čega se stvara placenta .
Na suprotnoj strani horiona  stvara se glatki horion ( chorion laeve ).
Decidua iznad  čupastog horiona je  decidualna ploča, tzv. Osnovna decidua ili bazalna ploča (decidua basalis ).    
Deo decidue prema suprotnom polu horiona je decidua capsularis seu reflexa.
Krajem trećeg meseca  embrionalnog razvoja ona se spaja sa zidnom deciduom (decidua parietalis ).
Posteljica se sastoji iz dva dela :

- pars faetalis placentae  
- pars materna placentae

Veći deo posteljice čini fetalni deo.
Horionske čupice su prekrivene sa dva sloja ćelija:

- Ćelije citotrofoblasta – unutrašnji (Lanhansov sloj).
- Ćelije  sinciciotrofoblasta  - spoljni sloj.

Iz primarnih čupica se arborizacojom ( četinarsko grananje )  krajem četvrtog meseca formira ovalni oblik placente. Tokom perioda do sedmog meseca formiraju se manje čupice. U poslednjem trimestru iz njih se granaju terminalne čupice.
Sve vreme ovaj proces grananja prati istanjenje zida horionskih čupica, sve do nestanka ćelija citotrofoblasta na nekim mestima, do istanjenja ćelija sincicijuma i do bliskog kontakta sa zidom kapilara ( membrana syncyciovascularis ).
Tokom četvrtog meseca iz bazalne ploče  se stvara veći broj pregrada ( septa basalis ) koje se pružaju prema razgranatim čupicama, kao osnovna pregrada sa epitelom od ćelija citotrofoblasta.
Pregrade dele majčinu stranu na 15 – 20 kotiledona, ograničavajući intervilozne prostore.
Kako pregrade ne dopiru do horionske ploče, krv majčina slobodno cirkuliše između kotiledona.
Ispod bazalne membrane nalazi se decidualni sloj, sastavljen od gornjeg kompaktnog sloja i donjeg spongioznog sloja sa žlezdama, ispod kojeg je miometrijum. Zona odlubljivanja posteljice je između kompaktnog i spongioznog sloja.
Posle formira  posteljica je teška 50 g. a na kraju trudnoće oko 500 g.
Rast je u početku brz a definitivno dostiže 15 – 20 cm. Debljina je 3 – 3,5 cm., a na obodu posteljica oko 1,5 cm.
Volumen majčine krvi koji na kraju trudnoće cirkuliše interviloznim prostorima  iznosi oko 600 ml/min.     Cirkulacija je spora što olakšava razmenu.
Površina horionskih čupica je prosečno od 6,5 do 11 m2.
Fetalni krvotok u čupicama se obezbeđuje radom fetalnog srca a krvni sudovi ne kolabiraju jer je prosečni pritisak viši za 30 mmHg  od pritiska u interviloznom prostoru.

 
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